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— This Month —
What Kind Of Military Force Do We Need
To Remain A Superpower?
Part IV — in·tel·li·gence – /in’telijəns/
The NSA vs We the people
- - - - -
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What Kind Of Military Force Do We Need
To Remain A Superpower?
It sure is tempting right now to use this
space to launch into a howling criticism of the
inept way President Obama is and has handled the
Russian invasion of the Crimea. But what good
would it do? The truth is America is tired of
war and while President Obama may be
milquetoast, walk softly and carry no stick at
all when it comes to foreign policy, at least he
is true to form. His actions right now are no
different than what they have been since he
first took office.
So instead of attacking him and venting our
frustration over how Putin has once again eaten
America’s lunch, let’s look at something related
to this event but of more importance to a bunch
of former U. S. Army Signal Corps Officers: How
much military force does a global superpower
Some would say that without steel will and
backbone all the military power in the world
won’t deter an aggressor hell bent on taking
over his neighbor. We would say different. We
would say that the amount of military power
friends of the invaded country hold, while maybe
not enough to stop it from being invaded without
a steel willed American President standing in
front of it, can be enough to check the
aggressive action of the invader and perhaps
keep the level of violence involved to a
Or put another way, maybe if Putin had a little
more respect for what America can do to his rag
tag army of vodka swilling delinquents he might
have thought twice about taking Crimea.
Either way, answering the question of how strong
and powerful America’s military should be has
challenged our country’s leaders and defense
planners ever since the end of World War II. As
to what the answer is, we can tell you that some
pretty powerful minds have tackled this question
for the past 60 years and the consensus seems be
that to hold its status as a superpower America
must retain the ability to conduct two major
regional conventional contingencies (MRCs) at
the same time. If America can meet this test,
then the size of its military is sufficient to
support the claim to Superpower status.
Two MRCs. What does this mean? The answer is
simple: America must adopt a military standard
that allows it to have and maintain a force
sized to fight two wars at the same time, while
simultaneously meeting the country’s ongoing
demands to be able to deploy a forward presence
in other areas, respond to a third international
crisis, mount regional deterrence where needed,
and provide humanitarian assistance when
requested… all while our military keeps working
to improve its capacity to fight by building new
partnership, providing homeland defense and
supporting the needs of civil authorities.
That’s a tall order isn’t it? Yes, but that’s
what it takes to be a Superpower today.
Is Russia a Superpower? Not in our book. But
that doesn’t matter. With its nukes it has the
ability to force our hand anytime it wants,
whether its Army is rag tag or not.
Does President Obama understand this? Judging by
how blithely he has allowed Iran to continue
down the road towards acquiring their own nukes,
one would think not. However, let’s give him a
break… if he learned anything from how Putin
just took him to school over the Ukraine he must
have learned that a strong military deterrent is
the only real power he has. Words mean nothing
to dictators. They never have and they never
will. Building a foreign policy of deterrence
and prevention on the basis of a “reset button”
is amateurish at best, and a criminal abdication
of one's pledge to protect America at all costs
at worst. Building one on the basis of Teddy
Roosevelt’s big stick makes more sense. Teddy’s,
and Obama’s, big stick is the U.S. military. And
the embodiment of that big stick is the two-MRC
As to what a two-MRC force should be composed
of, most think-tanks recommend that we have at
least 10 active and 8 Reserve Component army
divisions to start with. These should be
supplemented with 2 to 3 Marine Expeditionary
Forces, 11 aircraft carriers, 120 large surface
naval combatants, 38 large amphibious warfare
ships, 200 strategic bombers, 20 tactical
fighter wings, 400–500 tankers, and 250
airlifters. There would of course have to be
additional enabling resources working alongside
of these. They would include Special-Ops
capabilities, SIGINT and COMINT, intelligence
analysis, surveillance capabilities, recon
systems, cyber defenses, air and missile
defenses, and of course space systems. Overall,
if America wants to have a two-MRC force, that’s
what it needs.
Do we have one today?
Part IV – Signals
4 icon above to play video -
If you’re a regular
visitor to our site you have suffered through
three months of stories on signals interception
and intelligence as we worked our way to this,
our fourth and last article on the topic. What
about these issues—COMINT and SIGINT—could
possibly have made us to spend so much time on
them? Our answer: the mess that the NSA has made
of how they are practiced today, and who they
are being practiced against.
Why do we care? Because as
Signal Corps Officers we are the ones
that pioneered this field of study and gave it
life. We are the ones who sacrificed
our lives to give to America the ability to find
out what it’s enemies are thinking, and we
didn’t do this so that the skills and technology
we created could be used against us and
our family members… private citizens of this
great country. We didn’t create COMINT and
SIGINT so that our government could turn it on
us, and with little regard for why
We the people
formed a government in the first place, trample
our personal freedoms and use these practices
for political gain.
Let us make no bones about
why we have spent so much time studying the
history of COMINT and SIGINT and written four
articles on the subject. We did so in order to
provide a point of reference from which to judge
how well the NSA is doing its job today. Our
conclusion: what the NSA is doing is not only
not being done well, but being done in a
shameful manner, with a disgraceful lack of
regard and respect for the very principles that
set America apart from the rest of the world...
and with incompetence.
Reflecting back, for all practical purposes
COMINT operations began with the U.S. Army back
in 1936 when the 10th Signal Service Detachment
set up a listening post in Manila. Focusing on
the interception of Japanese diplomatic traffic,
press broadcasts and an occasional military
message or two, the information they gathered
was passed on for SIGINT interpretation to the
SIS, a section of the Signal Corps then known as
the Signals Intelligence Section.
the effort focused in turn on understanding
Japan’s intent as it set about invading
Manchuria while ramping up its naval military
strength… towards possible war with the U.S.
Looking back now, it’s clear that it was the
military’s need for information about possible
foreign aggressors that caused COMINT and SIGINT
to come into being, and for the boys of the 10th
Signal Service Detachment to be sent to Manila.
And it’s because of this that the effort itself
was housed within the military as opposed to a
Moving forward and judging
the extent to which COMINT and SIGINT
represented a means of fulfilling military needs
or civilian ones, one can see the extent of the
military’s need for COMINT and SIGINT by simply
looking at the number of men who died performing
this duty. For example, in July 1941, as
Japanese aggression began in earnest, General
MacArthur established the Army Forces Far-East
Command and gave it both COMIINT and SIGINT
in Intramuros, Manila, he assigned Detachment 6
of the 2nd Signal Service Company to this
command, to perform both COMINT and SIGINT.
Headed by Major Joe Sherr,
with Lt Howard W. Brown as its Operations
Officer, the detachment had 6 Sergeants, 3
Corporals and 6 Privates. With the Japanese
attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941,
and their landing on December 22, 1941, at
Lingayen (100 miles west of Manila) the
detachment was moved from Intramuros in Manila
to the Malinta Tunnel on Corregidor.
When MacArthur left for
Australia he took along with him Major Sherr,
who MacArthur felt was critical to have on his
personal staff because of his cryptanalysis
capabilities. He also arranged for Lieutenant
Brown to follow on, to help build SIGINT
capabilities in Brisbane, Australia. Most of the
other men however were left to conduct COMINT
and SIGINT from within the tunnels at
Some of them made it out,
but most became part of the 2,300 military and
civilians that were captured and forced to make
the infamous Bataan Death March to the O'Donnell
and Cabanatuan POW camps.
Like true Signal Corps
men, many members of the 2nd Signal Service
Company made attempts to evade the Japanese and
escape. Six of the men who performed COMINT and
SIGINT in the Malinta Tunnel made a partially
successful escape and evasion attempt in early
April. Three were caught, but the other three
escaped to the hills. These Signaleers, CPL
Irving A. Stein, CPL Michael Maslak and PFC
Stanley Kapp, carrying a pistol each as well as
six cans of sardines and ten pounds of rice, set
off to find and rejoin whatever remnants of the
U.S. Army they could locate. As far as they were
concerned, the war was just beginning and they
intended to participate in it.
Along the way, concerned
as much for the wellbeing of the Philippinos
they met as they were for their own, they freely
gave the quinine tablets they had with them to
the sick child of a Filipino Sergeant they
befriended. These were good men. These were good
American men. These were good U.S. Army Signal
As the group searched for
other intact Army units they ran across other
escapees, some of whom joined their group while
others set out on their own. Failing to find
U.S. military units to join, the small group
pooled their cash and bought a small 30-foot
dugout canoe. They then promptly put to sea,
enroute to Darwin, Australia, some 1,700 miles
The reader can see that
far from being just a sterile technical science
to be used however the U.S. government may wish,
COMINT and SIGINT represent uniquely American
capabilities born of the sweat, labor, valor,
heroism and death of U.S. Army Signal Corps men.
A hallowed practice created by the Signal Corps
to protect America, it was not intended to be
and never should be a tool to be used to probe,
pry and spy on American citizens. When a former
President of the United States, President Jimmy
Carter, states on national television as he did
on March 24 of this year, that he has no doubt
that his eMail account and phone calls are being
recorded by the NSA, and has resorted to hand
writing and personally mailing letters at his
local post office in order to avoid their
spying, one has to wonder what has happened to
What has happened to make
our supposed best of breed political system no
better than Putin’s autocratic authoritarianism?
Is corruption next? Have we become a nation
ruled by 'politigarchs' bent on their own
personal crusade to gather more power? Are the
Clintons 'politigarchs'... mild mannered
politicians who grow their wealth with 'dark
money' provided by super PACS, in return for
sweetheart political favors? Are they really
little more than U.S. versions of the corrupt
autocrats and oligarchs that rule Russia? How
about the Bush’s? Or Nancy Pelosi or Charlie
Rangel, or any of the other sneering, senile
Congressmen and Representatives that have sat in
office far longer than they deserve and now seem
to spend their time amassing personal power and
wealth rather than serving our country? Why do
these people allow the NSA to set its own
agenda? Why are they not doing their duty to
protect the freedoms guaranteed to
We the people by the constitution that
we the military fought so bravely to
It seems that when the NSA
blithely turns its eye on us Americans, under
the premise that only by snooping on us can it
find terrorists plotting harm to America,
somehow the train has come off the tracks. It
seems that when our government does nothing to
put an end to this program, and force those
performing the COMINT and SIGINT to align their
efforts with our constitution, then not only do
we have a train off the tracks but a train wreck
of a government too.
As for the three Signal
Corps men that we mentioned above, men who gave
their all to perfect the art of COMINT and
SIGINT, after setting off from Manila bay they
spent 28 days at sea, suffering through all
sorts of depravities from storms to swamping,
ripped sails and a water filled and barely
operable compass. Twice they encountered
Japanese ships and outmaneuvered them.
Eventually, navigating by stars at night, they
found their way to New Guinea. There on a small
unnamed island between Waigeo and Halmahera,
owned by a Chinese fisherman who befriended
them, these three Signal Corps men were able to
repair their boat. Unfortunately, on 24
September 1942 a routine Japanese patrol found
them and took them prisoner. They spent the rest
of the war in a prisoner of war camp in the
Netherlands East Indies.
CPL Stein and PFC Kapp
died in that prison camp… in 1944, from
exposure, disease and starvation. CPL Maslak
survived, was liberated in September 1944, and
made his way back to a new assignment at
Arlington Hall Station, barely 4 months after
having left his prison camp. There, newly
promoted to Staff Sergeant, he resumed his
COMINT and SIGINT duties as a member of the
Second Signal Service Battalion.
There are other stories we
could tell of how the Signal Corps brought
COMINT and SIGINT into existence to serve
America’s needs, stories of hundreds of Signal
Corps men who, down through the ages until 1952
when the NSA was formed and assigned the COMINT
and SIGINT duties the Signal Corps’ had
previously performed, gave their life to protect
America’s freedom. It is because of this that we
feel justified today in critiquing the job the
NSA is doing.
This page last
updated 1 April 2014. New content is constantly being added.
Please check back frequently.
1 April 2014 –
Candidate Frank (Francis) Long, Signal Corps OCS Class
07-67, sent in a few pictures to add to his Class
Page. He said he had his "...
own Web design business from 1995-2009.. built a
celebratory site for Cl 07-67. Included our class
photo... reconnected with classmate Bill Coleman...
who served as Cl 07-67 POC (with your organization,
I believe...?) for a while. Bill provided the other
photos attached... hope these items are helpful to
your cause." They are Frank. Most definitely. Thanks
for helping us archive the story of all of those who
served this great country, and thanks for your
service! Click here to see the photos Frank sent in,
and after you look at them, send us a few from your
days in the Army too:
1 March 2014 –
Major (R) William Feleciano, Signal Corps OCS Class
12-66, a life member of the Association, signed in
and sent us a short story of how as a Signal Officer
he gained local fame by inventing a rapid fire
device for Claymore mines. The story is fascinating,
so be sure to check it out. Click here
to jump to the page for OCS Class 12-66, then scroll
down to Major Feleciano's name and click on it.
Enjoy! And thanks William for sending along the
1 March 2014 –We've had lots of requests for copies of
the songs played on our
Devotional page, and have had to turn them down.
The truth is, they are copyright owned by the
artists and/or publishers, and while they don't mind
us streaming them here for you in honor of the Lord,
they aren't keen about us giving them away for free.
With that in mind, we've added a little 'perq' to
our website. It's called The Lord's Jukebox.
Beginning this month, if you take the time to read
our Devotional Page, you'll find a jukebox at the
bottom of it. If you click on it, you'll jump to a
new page where you can hear a compilation of all of
the Devotional Music that appears on our website.
Enjoy it... and don't forget to read Chaplain Max's
Devotional while you are at it.
1 February 2014 –
A few new pics of the 361 Signal Battalion and their
LLBN Signal Site at Cam Ranh Bay were sent in by
Specialist Arthur White, who served in the Unit. Our
thanks to Art for taking the time to send his shots
along, they are great pics to add to our archive.
You can see them on our Scrap Book page by clicking
on its link in the upper left column of this page.
Thanks again Art!
Continued from left column...
What has happened to the NSA? How could an agency still
part of the U.S. Department of Defense, lose its
direction so badly that it has turned on its own people in a
shoddy attempt to make up in the volume of communication it
intercepts for the lack of quality it produces in useful
Our answer: it’s endemic in our government. That is, the
American government is wholly unable to perform any task
with competence and capability. Look at the Department of
Education. For all of the money it is given, America ranks
17th among the 34 OECD countries in educating its youth. Is
this acceptable? America, the world’s only Superpower, can’t
educate its own children to anything better than average?
America, a world leader, producing kids whose knowledge
level is lower than that of the children of most third world
Or how about the Attorney General’s office, a group so
politicized that it picks and chooses the laws it will
enforce and the ones it will ignore. Why bother passing laws
if that’s the way they are going to be handled? Or the IRS,
who now seems to be investigating political groups in order
to intimidate them into supporting whichever political party
the IRS favors this month (Wow! I can’t wait for them to get
their hands on my health records!)? Or the TSA, Homeland
Security, FDA, Department of Agriculture, FEMA
(“Brownie, you're doing a heck of a job”… George W. Bush)?
Or Congress itself?
We mention this not to rail against these inept,
politicized, frequently corrupt government agencies, but to
make the point that nearly every element of our government
is malfunctioning today.
So where does the NSA fit in all of this? It fits into this
equation because, in our mind, while it may still be an
agency of the DoD it has become closer to the civilian
government agencies that it works with than the Department
of Defense that it is a part of. Essentially, it is
operating as though it is a stand alone civilian agency,
instead of a support element of the Department of Defense.
In terms of why this matters, if one looks at it, it is clear that the U.S. Military is
probably the only competent “agency” left in the U.S. government.
Standing alone, by itself, the U.S. Military neither walks,
talks nor acts like a civilian government agency. Proud of
the distinction of being the only non-agency within our
government, the U.S. Military operates with precision, stays
within its budget, performs its tasks and duties with
competence and superlative results, is ethical, moral, and
is true to the American people. This is not the case with
the numerous civilian agencies that populate Washington.
Most can’t get out of their own way and could care less
whether they serve the American people or not. Their job is
to survive, amass as much power as possible, and overlay all
of this with as much money as they can con Congress into
giving them. Not one among them would self report their own
incompetence and mistakes. Yet we find incompetence and
mistakes in them each and every day.
Understand us here… we are not criticizing the people within
these agencies as much as we are claiming that large
government agencies, by their very nature, exist in a
government built world without sufficient checks and
balances to keep them performing their defined role. Because
of this, they tend to head off chasing tangential goals that
seem of interest or importance to whichever newest political
appointee-ideologue is running the agency, rather than doing
what the agency is supposed to be doing.
These kinds of agencies thus become instruments of political
ideology, rather than a platform from which work can be
performed on the tasks that brought them into existence in
the first place. Compare if you will: in the commercial
world the need to satisfy shareholders causes big businesses
to keep themselves in check, working to earn profits, rather
than chasing ideological dreams. Similarly, the impact of
the commercial marketplace on business forces large
corporations to avoid ideological wars and focus instead on
the task at hand, if they want to stay in business. This
does not happen with government agencies, and so with every
change of government comes a change in political appointees
to run these agencies, and a change in ideological goals for
the agency to support—rather than doing the job they were
created to do to begin with. The result: an incompetent
government tending towards corruption and autocracy, filled
with ideologically driven government agencies wholly without
ethics except those defined by the narrow ideological bent
of the current head of that agency.
If the NSA operated as though it was still a part of the
Department of Defense (which technically it is…), and
adhered to the same principles that the five military
services follow, we would not have the mess the NSA has both
created and become. Instead, because the NSA slowly crept
away on tiptoes from the military group that it rightfully
belongs to and sidled up to the civilian agencies that crave
its capabilities, it has allowed itself to become as
bastardized as they are. As is often said about friends who
pal around together, eventually the best of them become like
the worst of them. In this case, the result is that the NSA
now responds to the needs of its new suitors, from the CIA
and FBI to the Office of the President and Congress itself.
The NSA now exists to support their cause, not to
perform a mission in keeping with the constitution and the
needs of the American people.
So how can this be fixed?
Back when I was in Vietnam and made my rounds checking on the perimeter guards,
I would look out through the wire and wonder how tough the Viet Cong really
were. That was in the early days, when I was still a Newbie (or FNG if you wish)
and hadn't yet experienced the thrill of a fire fight. After my first one I
learned that the VC were tough, but beatable. Today I sit in my easy chair and
watch CNN and Fox News and wonder how tough the Russians really are.
After much thinking, I’ve come to the conclusion: not very much. I’ll bet the VC
could beat the pants off of them.
If you remember back in the 60s, China used to call America a paper tiger. I get
the sense that Russia is closer to that mark today than America ever was. Why do
I say this? Because of the measures the Russian military is taking to bandage
its broken armed force structure. For example, in 2013 the Russian military
announced that new conscripts could bring their pet dogs with them if they
signed up to join. Really? Pet dogs? I’ll bet Paris Hilton would feel right at
sure, the dogs have to undergo some sort of special training to pick up a few
skills that might be useful, but are they serious? Do they really let you bring
your dog with you if you enlist?
Apparently so. The Russian military is so short of qualified men that they are
doing all they can to find people better than the conscripts they are seeing
now, and since in rural parts of Russia trained dogs are part of every family (I
thought it was trained bears???) the military thinks that letting country boys
bring their pooch with them will make them more inclined to join.
Under pressure for 10 year now to do away with conscription, and unable to do so
because so few people are willing to join the military, the government is
desperate to bring men into its services. It has improved living conditions,
tried desperately to reduce the traditional brutality that exists in its armed
forces, reduced the conscript service to only 1 year from the old 2, stopped
prosecuting draft dodgers, and begun tossing out those who are part of the
nearly 40% that are perpetually sick, overweight, have a bad attitude, or
addicted to drugs or drink. Yet things are not improving. The Russian military is not
only shrinking, it is becoming more ineffectual along the way.
One area this is impacting is the readiness of Russia’s elite airborne and
commando units. An area that depends on eager young men willing to master the
skills needed to be useful, few choose to stay in these units when their time is
up simply because life in the Russian military is so miserable. On the whole,
the Russian military is a crippled institution, and it is unlikely to get better
any time soon.
add to this problem, Russia’s NCO corps is getting fed up with dealing with 1
year conscripts more focused on alcohol than training. Add to this a nearly 28%
rate of crime in the military and you can see why NCOs are starting to leave the
military faster than the conscripts are coming in. It doesn’t take a rocket
scientist to see that the exodus of Russia’s NCO corps, along with an ever
increasing base of ill-trained, unreliable conscripts whose time in service
won’t last beyond 12 months, is turning the Russian military into little more
than a ghost of its former Soviet day self.
Ah for the good old days… back when the Soviet Union had 5 million troops in its
armed forces and America was building up defenses throughout Europe to stop-up
the Fulga Gap and prevent this Slavic horde from pouring into Western Europe.
Now Russia's military numbers fewer than 1 million.
It’s true that part of the problem is that the new Russia has only half the
population of the old Soviet Union, but that doesn’t change things. The fact is
that the Russian armed forces has lost over 80 percent of its strength since
1991. Top heavy with too many bitter Officers in a bad mood, a dwindling NCO
Corps, and a useless base of bullies, alcoholics and drug addicts, the
institution is beyond short term repair. For example, look at the officer corps.
There are about 355,000 officers in the force, which amounts to a ratio of more
than 1 in 3 when compared to enlisted men. And as if that doesn’t make the
military top heavy, there are at present some 40,000 officer positions yet to be
Not to worry. If asked about this the Interior Ministry (which controls much but
not all of the military) will tell you that its paramilitary troops are doing
most of the fighting these days and they are top notch. So, they say, what
happens with the rest of the military is of little importance.
Hearing this, one would presume then that since the Interior Ministry has a
decent number of infantry and commandos in uniform (35,000 airborne troops,
20,000 marine ground troops, and 100,000 “Special Police” that include riot
police units, light infantry units, and police commandoes), all is in fact well.
If so then, there’s only one question we have: since the bulk of the Russian
military’s shock troops are composed of Special Police made up of SWAT units
formed by local police, in big cities, available for use in highly populated
urban areas anywhere in Russia, is their military focusing on internal
dissension on the part of the citizenry, or external threats? To us it would
seem the former, rather than the latter. Or put another way: who is the enemy
they are preparing to fight? The Russian citizenry?
Either way, Russia’s efforts to improve the quality of its military continue to
be impacted by the need to attract volunteers rather than depend on conscripts.
For example, last year the Russian government bowed to public pressure and
agreed not to send conscripts into combat. Instead only “Contract Soldiers”
(troops that volunteer for combat in return for a higher level of pay) will be
even this did not help. Parents stopped complaining about the use of their
conscripted sons for combat, and turned their attention instead to where
their Contract Soldier sons were being posted. When armed conflict broke out in
the Caucasus they complained about their Contract Soldier sons fighting there,
causing no end of problems for the Interior Ministry. It wasn’t the issue of
fighting per se that bothered the parents, it was the idea that their sons were
being sent into areas rife with terrorism. Having watched the kind of killing
that American troops faced in Afghanistan (roadside bombs, IEDs, and all the
rest), they decided that while they didn’t mind if their son died in a
conventional war, this risky “stifling terrorism in civilian areas” stuff was
simply too much.
The fear that their sons would be targets for terrorist attacks scared the hell
out of parents, because they knew that two factors stood in the way of their
sons being able to survive. The first was that the Russian military had
essentially stopped training troops who were on 1 year enlistments and the
second was that even if they did provide some training there was simply no way a
man could be trained to combat terrorism and be deployed in the 1 year period
that was available. No matter how you cut it, the parents complained, training
cuts made their sons less able to defend themselves, and even if training was
provided the military couldn’t provide enough of it in the 3+ months available
before the man was deployed to the combat zone to make a difference either in
his skills, his competence or his ability to keep himself alive.
Now add to this the fact that the Russian people are having fewer and fewer
children, and you have a real problem. While plans are in place to increase the
number of Contract Troops to 425,000, the biggest problem is that the number of
18 year olds is rapidly declining each and every year. With the birth rate going
south faster than the temperature in Siberia in winter, Russia is facing a
dilemma without a solution. The number of available draftees went from 1.5
million a year in the 1990s to just over 750,000 today. If you add to this the
fact that nearly half of these have either proven criminal tendencies or
records, there aren’t a lot of young men available with which to build a serious
So whether it’s the parents of precious young Russian men fighting the Russian
military and Interior Department to protect their sons, the internet creating a
social platform of anti-military bias, lack of training, a 1 year limit on the
length of an enlistment, NCOs leaving the military by the droves, too many
officers for the tasks at hand, studies showing that 20 percent of the military
budget is lost to corruption and outright theft, inferior weapons coming from
corrupt and incompetent Russian arms manufacturers, or the simple fact that most
military age men don’t want to serve in the military, it’s beginning to look
like the Russian military poses little to no threat to America.
Me? I’ll take a worthy opponent like the VC any day. If I’m going to fight, give
me someone worth getting out of bed to face.
April's Crossword Puzzle
Join 2 and 3 word answers together as one complete word.
For answer key to this month's
see icon at bottom of page
 On 1 January 1939 the then
existing five Signal Service Detachments, including the
10th, were reassigned to the newly activated 2nd Signal
Service Company headquartered at Fort Monmouth. To return to your place in the
text click here:
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