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April 2014

— This Month —

What Kind Of Military Force Do We Need
To Remain A Superpower?


Part IV — in·tel·li·gence – /in’telijəns/ noun

The NSA vs We the people

- - - - -


Our Association is a not-for-profit fraternal organization. It's purpose is a) to foster camaraderie among the graduates of Signal Corps Officer Candidate School classes of the World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War eras, b) to organize and offer scholarships and other assistance for the families of Officer and Enlisted OCS cadre who are in need, and c) to archive for posterity the stories and history of all of the Signal Corps OCS Officers who served this great country. We are open to ALL former Army Signal Corps OCS graduates, their families and friends, as well as other officers, enlisted men, those interested in military history, and the general public. Please, come join us. For more information about our Association, to see a list of our Officers and Directors, or for contact details, click on the OCS Association link at left.

Please note: The views and opinions expressed on this website are offered in order to stimulate interest in those who visit it. They are solely the views and expressions of the authors and/or contributors to this website and do not necessarily represent the views of the Army Signal Corps Officer Candidate School Association, its Officers, Directors, members, volunteers, staff, or any other party associated with the Association. If you have any suggestions for improvements to this site, please send them to We are here to serve you.                       

What Kind Of Military Force Do We Need To Remain A Superpower?

Army Signal OCS Editor

It sure is tempting right now to use this space to launch into a howling criticism of the inept way President Obama is and has handled the Russian invasion of the Crimea. But what good would it do? The truth is America is tired of war and while President Obama may be milquetoast, walk softly and carry no stick at all when it comes to foreign policy, at least he is true to form. His actions right now are no different than what they have been since he first took office.

So instead of attacking him and venting our frustration over how Putin has once again eaten America’s lunch, let’s look at something related to this event but of more importance to a bunch of former U. S. Army Signal Corps Officers: How much military force does a global superpower really need?

Some would say that without steel will and backbone all the military power in the world won’t deter an aggressor hell bent on taking over his neighbor. We would say different. We would say that the amount of military power friends of the invaded country hold, while maybe not enough to stop it from being invaded without a steel willed American President standing in front of it, can be enough to check the aggressive action of the invader and perhaps keep the level of violence involved to a minimum.

Or put another way, maybe if Putin had a little more respect for what America can do to his rag tag army of vodka swilling delinquents he might have thought twice about taking Crimea.

Maybe not.

Either way, answering the question of how strong and powerful America’s military should be has challenged our country’s leaders and defense planners ever since the end of World War II. As to what the answer is, we can tell you that some pretty powerful minds have tackled this question for the past 60 years and the consensus seems be that to hold its status as a superpower America must retain the ability to conduct two major regional conventional contingencies (MRCs) at the same time. If America can meet this test, then the size of its military is sufficient to support the claim to Superpower status.

Two MRCs. What does this mean? The answer is simple: America must adopt a military standard that allows it to have and maintain a force sized to fight two wars at the same time, while simultaneously meeting the country’s ongoing demands to be able to deploy a forward presence in other areas, respond to a third international crisis, mount regional deterrence where needed, and provide humanitarian assistance when requested… all while our military keeps working to improve its capacity to fight by building new partnership, providing homeland defense and supporting the needs of civil authorities.

That’s a tall order isn’t it? Yes, but that’s what it takes to be a Superpower today.

Is Russia a Superpower? Not in our book. But that doesn’t matter. With its nukes it has the ability to force our hand anytime it wants, whether its Army is rag tag or not.

Does President Obama understand this? Judging by how blithely he has allowed Iran to continue down the road towards acquiring their own nukes, one would think not. However, let’s give him a break… if he learned anything from how Putin just took him to school over the Ukraine he must have learned that a strong military deterrent is the only real power he has. Words mean nothing to dictators. They never have and they never will. Building a foreign policy of deterrence and prevention on the basis of a “reset button” is amateurish at best, and a criminal abdication of one's pledge to protect America at all costs at worst. Building one on the basis of Teddy Roosevelt’s big stick makes more sense. Teddy’s, and Obama’s, big stick is the U.S. military. And the embodiment of that big stick is the two-MRC force.

As to what a two-MRC force should be composed of, most think-tanks recommend that we have at least 10 active and 8 Reserve Component army divisions to start with. These should be supplemented with 2 to 3 Marine Expeditionary Forces, 11 aircraft carriers, 120 large surface naval combatants, 38 large amphibious warfare ships, 200 strategic bombers, 20 tactical fighter wings, 400–500 tankers, and 250 airlifters. There would of course have to be additional enabling resources working alongside of these. They would include Special-Ops capabilities, SIGINT and COMINT, intelligence analysis, surveillance capabilities, recon systems, cyber defenses, air and missile defenses, and of course space systems. Overall, if America wants to have a two-MRC force, that’s what it needs.

Do we have one today?



Part IV – Signals Intelligence


- click 4 icon above to play video -

If you’re a regular visitor to our site you have suffered through three months of stories on signals interception and intelligence as we worked our way to this, our fourth and last article on the topic. What about these issues—COMINT and SIGINT—could possibly have made us to spend so much time on them? Our answer: the mess that the NSA has made of how they are practiced today, and who they are being practiced against.

Why do we care? Because as Signal Corps Officers we are the ones that pioneered this field of study and gave it life. We are the ones who sacrificed our lives to give to America the ability to find out what it’s enemies are thinking, and we didn’t do this so that the skills and technology we created could be used against us and our family members… private citizens of this great country. We didn’t create COMINT and SIGINT so that our government could turn it on us, and with little regard for why We the people formed a government in the first place, trample our personal freedoms and use these practices for political gain.

Let us make no bones about why we have spent so much time studying the history of COMINT and SIGINT and written four articles on the subject. We did so in order to provide a point of reference from which to judge how well the NSA is doing its job today. Our conclusion: what the NSA is doing is not only not being done well, but being done in a shameful manner, with a disgraceful lack of regard and respect for the very principles that set America apart from the rest of the world... and with incompetence.

Reflecting back, for all practical purposes COMINT operations began with the U.S. Army back in 1936 when the 10th Signal Service Detachment set up a listening post in Manila. Focusing on the interception of Japanese diplomatic traffic, press broadcasts and an occasional military message or two, the information they gathered was passed on for SIGINT interpretation to the SIS, a section of the Signal Corps then known as the Signals Intelligence Section.[1]

Luzon WWII listening stationThere the effort focused in turn on understanding Japan’s intent as it set about invading Manchuria while ramping up its naval military strength… towards possible war with the U.S. Looking back now, it’s clear that it was the military’s need for information about possible foreign aggressors that caused COMINT and SIGINT to come into being, and for the boys of the 10th Signal Service Detachment to be sent to Manila. And it’s because of this that the effort itself was housed within the military as opposed to a civilian agency.

Moving forward and judging the extent to which COMINT and SIGINT represented a means of fulfilling military needs or civilian ones, one can see the extent of the military’s need for COMINT and SIGINT by simply looking at the number of men who died performing this duty. For example, in July 1941, as Japanese aggression began in earnest, General MacArthur established the Army Forces Far-East Command and gave it both COMIINT and SIGINT capabilities.

Intramuros, Japanese bombing WWIILocated in Intramuros, Manila, he assigned Detachment 6 of the 2nd Signal Service Company to this command, to perform both COMINT and SIGINT.

Headed by Major Joe Sherr, with Lt Howard W. Brown as its Operations Officer, the detachment had 6 Sergeants, 3 Corporals and 6 Privates. With the Japanese attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941, and their landing on December 22, 1941, at Lingayen (100 miles west of Manila) the detachment was moved from Intramuros in Manila to the Malinta Tunnel on Corregidor.

When MacArthur left for Australia he took along with him Major Sherr, who MacArthur felt was critical to have on his personal staff because of his cryptanalysis capabilities. He also arranged for Lieutenant Brown to follow on, to help build SIGINT capabilities in Brisbane, Australia. Most of the other men however were left to conduct COMINT and SIGINT from within the tunnels at Corregidor.

Some of them made it out, but most became part of the 2,300 military and civilians that were captured and forced to make the infamous Bataan Death March to the O'Donnell and Cabanatuan POW camps.

Like true Signal Corps men, many members of the 2nd Signal Service Company made attempts to evade the Japanese and escape. Six of the men who performed COMINT and SIGINT in the Malinta Tunnel made a partially successful escape and evasion attempt in early April. Three were caught, but the other three escaped to the hills. These Signaleers, CPL Irving A. Stein, CPL Michael Maslak and PFC Stanley Kapp, carrying a pistol each as well as six cans of sardines and ten pounds of rice, set off to find and rejoin whatever remnants of the U.S. Army they could locate. As far as they were concerned, the war was just beginning and they intended to participate in it.

Along the way, concerned as much for the wellbeing of the Philippinos they met as they were for their own, they freely gave the quinine tablets they had with them to the sick child of a Filipino Sergeant they befriended. These were good men. These were good American men. These were good U.S. Army Signal Corps men.

As the group searched for other intact Army units they ran across other escapees, some of whom joined their group while others set out on their own. Failing to find U.S. military units to join, the small group pooled their cash and bought a small 30-foot dugout canoe. They then promptly put to sea, enroute to Darwin, Australia, some 1,700 miles away.

The reader can see that far from being just a sterile technical science to be used however the U.S. government may wish, COMINT and SIGINT represent uniquely American capabilities born of the sweat, labor, valor, heroism and death of U.S. Army Signal Corps men. A hallowed practice created by the Signal Corps to protect America, it was not intended to be and never should be a tool to be used to probe, pry and spy on American citizens. When a former President of the United States, President Jimmy Carter, states on national television as he did on March 24 of this year, that he has no doubt that his eMail account and phone calls are being recorded by the NSA, and has resorted to hand writing and personally mailing letters at his local post office in order to avoid their spying, one has to wonder what has happened to our country.

What has happened to make our supposed best of breed political system no better than Putin’s autocratic authoritarianism? Is corruption next? Have we become a nation ruled by 'politigarchs' bent on their own personal crusade to gather more power? Are the Clintons 'politigarchs'... mild mannered politicians who grow their wealth with 'dark money' provided by super PACS, in return for sweetheart political favors? Are they really little more than U.S. versions of the corrupt autocrats and oligarchs that rule Russia? How about the Bush’s? Or Nancy Pelosi or Charlie Rangel, or any of the other sneering, senile Congressmen and Representatives that have sat in office far longer than they deserve and now seem to spend their time amassing personal power and wealth rather than serving our country? Why do these people allow the NSA to set its own agenda? Why are they not doing their duty to protect the freedoms guaranteed to We the people by the constitution that we the military fought so bravely to defend?

It seems that when the NSA blithely turns its eye on us Americans, under the premise that only by snooping on us can it find terrorists plotting harm to America, somehow the train has come off the tracks. It seems that when our government does nothing to put an end to this program, and force those performing the COMINT and SIGINT to align their efforts with our constitution, then not only do we have a train off the tracks but a train wreck of a government too.

As for the three Signal Corps men that we mentioned above, men who gave their all to perfect the art of COMINT and SIGINT, after setting off from Manila bay they spent 28 days at sea, suffering through all sorts of depravities from storms to swamping, ripped sails and a water filled and barely operable compass. Twice they encountered Japanese ships and outmaneuvered them. Eventually, navigating by stars at night, they found their way to New Guinea. There on a small unnamed island between Waigeo and Halmahera, owned by a Chinese fisherman who befriended them, these three Signal Corps men were able to repair their boat. Unfortunately, on 24 September 1942 a routine Japanese patrol found them and took them prisoner. They spent the rest of the war in a prisoner of war camp in the Netherlands East Indies.

CPL Stein and PFC Kapp died in that prison camp… in 1944, from exposure, disease and starvation. CPL Maslak survived, was liberated in September 1944, and made his way back to a new assignment at Arlington Hall Station, barely 4 months after having left his prison camp. There, newly promoted to Staff Sergeant, he resumed his COMINT and SIGINT duties as a member of the Second Signal Service Battalion.

There are other stories we could tell of how the Signal Corps brought COMINT and SIGINT into existence to serve America’s needs, stories of hundreds of Signal Corps men who, down through the ages until 1952 when the NSA was formed and assigned the COMINT and SIGINT duties the Signal Corps’ had previously performed, gave their life to protect America’s freedom. It is because of this that we feel justified today in critiquing the job the NSA is doing.

Continued at top of page, COLUMN AT RIGHT


Military viewpoints...


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This page last updated 1 April 2014. New content is constantly being added. Please check back frequently.

Update 1 April 2014 Candidate Frank (Francis) Long, Signal Corps OCS Class 07-67, sent in a few pictures to add to his Class Page. He said he had his "... own Web design business from 1995-2009.. built a celebratory site for Cl 07-67. Included our class photo... reconnected with classmate Bill Coleman... who served as Cl 07-67 POC (with your organization, I believe...?) for a while. Bill provided the other photos attached... hope these items are helpful to your cause." They are Frank. Most definitely. Thanks for helping us archive the story of all of those who served this great country, and thanks for your service! Click here to see the photos Frank sent in, and after you look at them, send us a few from your days in the Army too: Jump to OCS Class 12-66

Update 1 March 2014 Major (R) William Feleciano, Signal Corps OCS Class 12-66, a life member of the Association, signed in and sent us a short story of how as a Signal Officer he gained local fame by inventing a rapid fire device for Claymore mines. The story is fascinating, so be sure to check it out. Click here Jump to OCS Class 12-66 to jump to the page for OCS Class 12-66, then scroll down to Major Feleciano's name and click on it. Enjoy! And thanks William for sending along the story.

Update 1 March 2014 We've had lots of requests for copies of the songs played on our Devotional page, and have had to turn them down. The truth is, they are copyright owned by the artists and/or publishers, and while they don't mind us streaming them here for you in honor of the Lord, they aren't keen about us giving them away for free. With that in mind, we've added a little 'perq' to our website. It's called The Lord's Jukebox. Beginning this month, if you take the time to read our Devotional Page, you'll find a jukebox at the bottom of it. If you click on it, you'll jump to a new page where you can hear a compilation of all of the Devotional Music that appears on our website. Enjoy it... and don't forget to read Chaplain Max's Devotional while you are at it.

Update 1 February 2014 A few new pics of the 361 Signal Battalion and their LLBN Signal Site at Cam Ranh Bay were sent in by Specialist Arthur White, who served in the Unit. Our thanks to Art for taking the time to send his shots along, they are great pics to add to our archive. You can see them on our Scrap Book page by clicking on its link in the upper left column of this page. Thanks again Art!



Continued from left column... 

What has happened to the NSA? How could an agency still part of the U.S. Department of Defense, lose its direction so badly that it has turned on its own people in a shoddy attempt to make up in the volume of communication it intercepts for the lack of quality it produces in useful intelligence?

Broken U.S. governmentOur answer: it’s endemic in our government. That is, the American government is wholly unable to perform any task with competence and capability. Look at the Department of Education. For all of the money it is given, America ranks 17th among the 34 OECD countries in educating its youth. Is this acceptable? America, the world’s only Superpower, can’t educate its own children to anything better than average? America, a world leader, producing kids whose knowledge level is lower than that of the children of most third world countries?

Or how about the Attorney General’s office, a group so politicized that it picks and chooses the laws it will enforce and the ones it will ignore. Why bother passing laws if that’s the way they are going to be handled? Or the IRS, who now seems to be investigating political groups in order to intimidate them into supporting whichever political party the IRS favors this month (Wow! I can’t wait for them to get their hands on my health records!)? Or the TSA, Homeland Security, FDA, Department of Agriculture, FEMA (“Brownie, you're doing a heck of a job”… George W. Bush)? Or Congress itself?

We mention this not to rail against these inept, politicized, frequently corrupt government agencies, but to make the point that nearly every element of our government is malfunctioning today.

Torn between two loversSo where does the NSA fit in all of this? It fits into this equation because, in our mind, while it may still be an agency of the DoD it has become closer to the civilian government agencies that it works with than the Department of Defense that it is a part of. Essentially, it is operating as though it is a stand alone civilian agency, instead of a support element of the Department of Defense.

In terms of why this matters, if one looks at it, it is clear that the U.S. Military is probably the only competent “agency” left in the U.S. government. Standing alone, by itself, the U.S. Military neither walks, talks nor acts like a civilian government agency. Proud of the distinction of being the only non-agency within our government, the U.S. Military operates with precision, stays within its budget, performs its tasks and duties with competence and superlative results, is ethical, moral, and is true to the American people. This is not the case with the numerous civilian agencies that populate Washington. Most can’t get out of their own way and could care less whether they serve the American people or not. Their job is to survive, amass as much power as possible, and overlay all of this with as much money as they can con Congress into giving them. Not one among them would self report their own incompetence and mistakes. Yet we find incompetence and mistakes in them each and every day.

Understand us here… we are not criticizing the people within these agencies as much as we are claiming that large government agencies, by their very nature, exist in a government built world without sufficient checks and balances to keep them performing their defined role. Because of this, they tend to head off chasing tangential goals that seem of interest or importance to whichever newest political appointee-ideologue is running the agency, rather than doing what the agency is supposed to be doing.

These kinds of agencies thus become instruments of political ideology, rather than a platform from which work can be performed on the tasks that brought them into existence in the first place. Compare if you will: in the commercial world the need to satisfy shareholders causes big businesses to keep themselves in check, working to earn profits, rather than chasing ideological dreams. Similarly, the impact of the commercial marketplace on business forces large corporations to avoid ideological wars and focus instead on the task at hand, if they want to stay in business. This does not happen with government agencies, and so with every change of government comes a change in political appointees to run these agencies, and a change in ideological goals for the agency to support—rather than doing the job they were created to do to begin with. The result: an incompetent government tending towards corruption and autocracy, filled with ideologically driven government agencies wholly without ethics except those defined by the narrow ideological bent of the current head of that agency.

If the NSA operated as though it was still a part of the Department of Defense (which technically it is…), and adhered to the same principles that the five military services follow, we would not have the mess the NSA has both created and become. Instead, because the NSA slowly crept away on tiptoes from the military group that it rightfully belongs to and sidled up to the civilian agencies that crave its capabilities, it has allowed itself to become as bastardized as they are. As is often said about friends who pal around together, eventually the best of them become like the worst of them. In this case, the result is that the NSA now responds to the needs of its new suitors, from the CIA and FBI to the Office of the President and Congress itself. The NSA now exists to support their cause, not to perform a mission in keeping with the constitution and the needs of the American people.

So how can this be fixed? 




Back when I was in Vietnam and made my rounds checking on the perimeter guards, I would look out through the wire and wonder how tough the Viet Cong really were. That was in the early days, when I was still a Newbie (or FNG if you wish) and hadn't yet experienced the thrill of a fire fight. After my first one I learned that the VC were tough,  but beatable. Today I sit in my easy chair and watch CNN and Fox News and wonder how tough the Russians really are.

After much thinking, I’ve come to the conclusion: not very much. I’ll bet the VC could beat the pants off of them.

If you remember back in the 60s, China used to call America a paper tiger. I get the sense that Russia is closer to that mark today than America ever was. Why do I say this? Because of the measures the Russian military is taking to bandage its broken armed force structure. For example, in 2013 the Russian military announced that new conscripts could bring their pet dogs with them if they signed up to join. Really? Pet dogs? I’ll bet Paris Hilton would feel right at home.

The new Russian military... dogsOh sure, the dogs have to undergo some sort of special training to pick up a few skills that might be useful, but are they serious? Do they really let you bring your dog with you if you enlist?

Apparently so. The Russian military is so short of qualified men that they are doing all they can to find people better than the conscripts they are seeing now, and since in rural parts of Russia trained dogs are part of every family (I thought it was trained bears???) the military thinks that letting country boys bring their pooch with them will make them more inclined to join.

Under pressure for 10 year now to do away with conscription, and unable to do so because so few people are willing to join the military, the government is desperate to bring men into its services. It has improved living conditions, tried desperately to reduce the traditional brutality that exists in its armed forces, reduced the conscript service to only 1 year from the old 2, stopped prosecuting draft dodgers, and begun tossing out those who are part of the nearly 40% that are perpetually sick, overweight, have a bad attitude, or addicted to drugs or drink. Yet things are not improving. The Russian military is not only shrinking, it is becoming more ineffectual along the way.

One area this is impacting is the readiness of Russia’s elite airborne and commando units. An area that depends on eager young men willing to master the skills needed to be useful, few choose to stay in these units when their time is up simply because life in the Russian military is so miserable. On the whole, the Russian military is a crippled institution, and it is unlikely to get better any time soon.

Best in class Russian officersTo add to this problem, Russia’s NCO corps is getting fed up with dealing with 1 year conscripts more focused on alcohol than training. Add to this a nearly 28% rate of crime in the military and you can see why NCOs are starting to leave the military faster than the conscripts are coming in. It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to see that the exodus of Russia’s NCO corps, along with an ever increasing base of ill-trained, unreliable conscripts whose time in service won’t last beyond 12 months, is turning the Russian military into little more than a ghost of its former Soviet day self.

Ah for the good old days… back when the Soviet Union had 5 million troops in its armed forces and America was building up defenses throughout Europe to stop-up the Fulga Gap and prevent this Slavic horde from pouring into Western Europe. Now Russia's military numbers fewer than 1 million.

It’s true that part of the problem is that the new Russia has only half the population of the old Soviet Union, but that doesn’t change things. The fact is that the Russian armed forces has lost over 80 percent of its strength since 1991. Top heavy with too many bitter Officers in a bad mood, a dwindling NCO Corps, and a useless base of bullies, alcoholics and drug addicts, the institution is beyond short term repair. For example, look at the officer corps. There are about 355,000 officers in the force, which amounts to a ratio of more than 1 in 3 when compared to enlisted men. And as if that doesn’t make the military top heavy, there are at present some 40,000 officer positions yet to be filled!

Not to worry. If asked about this the Interior Ministry (which controls much but not all of the military) will tell you that its paramilitary troops are doing most of the fighting these days and they are top notch. So, they say, what happens with the rest of the military is of little importance.

Hearing this, one would presume then that since the Interior Ministry has a decent number of infantry and commandos in uniform (35,000 airborne troops, 20,000 marine ground troops, and 100,000 “Special Police” that include riot police units, light infantry units, and police commandoes), all is in fact well. If so then, there’s only one question we have: since the bulk of the Russian military’s shock troops are composed of Special Police made up of SWAT units formed by local police, in big cities, available for use in highly populated urban areas anywhere in Russia, is their military focusing on internal dissension on the part of the citizenry, or external threats? To us it would seem the former, rather than the latter. Or put another way: who is the enemy they are preparing to fight? The Russian citizenry?

Either way, Russia’s efforts to improve the quality of its military continue to be impacted by the need to attract volunteers rather than depend on conscripts. For example, last year the Russian government bowed to public pressure and agreed not to send conscripts into combat. Instead only “Contract Soldiers” (troops that volunteer for combat in return for a higher level of pay) will be used.

Conscripts-vs-TerroristsBut even this did not help. Parents stopped complaining about the use of their conscripted sons for combat, and turned their attention instead to where their Contract Soldier sons were being posted. When armed conflict broke out in the Caucasus they complained about their Contract Soldier sons fighting there, causing no end of problems for the Interior Ministry. It wasn’t the issue of fighting per se that bothered the parents, it was the idea that their sons were being sent into areas rife with terrorism. Having watched the kind of killing that American troops faced in Afghanistan (roadside bombs, IEDs, and all the rest), they decided that while they didn’t mind if their son died in a conventional war, this risky “stifling terrorism in civilian areas” stuff was simply too much.

The fear that their sons would  be targets for terrorist attacks scared the hell out of parents, because they knew that two factors stood in the way of their sons being able to survive. The first was that the Russian military had essentially stopped training troops who were on 1 year enlistments and the second was that even if they did provide some training there was simply no way a man could be trained to combat terrorism and be deployed in the 1 year period that was available. No matter how you cut it, the parents complained, training cuts made their sons less able to defend themselves, and even if training was provided the military couldn’t provide enough of it in the 3+ months available before the man was deployed to the combat zone to make a difference either in his skills, his competence or his ability to keep himself alive.

Now add to this the fact that the Russian people are having fewer and fewer children, and you have a real problem. While plans are in place to increase the number of Contract Troops to 425,000, the biggest problem is that the number of 18 year olds is rapidly declining each and every year. With the birth rate going south faster than the temperature in Siberia in winter, Russia is facing a dilemma without a solution. The number of available draftees went from 1.5 million a year in the 1990s to just over 750,000 today. If you add to this the fact that nearly half of these have either proven criminal tendencies or records, there aren’t a lot of young men available with which to build a serious military.

So whether it’s the parents of precious young Russian men fighting the Russian military and Interior Department to protect their sons, the internet creating a social platform of anti-military bias, lack of training, a 1 year limit on the length of an enlistment, NCOs leaving the military by the droves, too many officers for the tasks at hand, studies showing that 20 percent of the military budget is lost to corruption and outright theft, inferior weapons coming from corrupt and incompetent Russian arms manufacturers, or the simple fact that most military age men don’t want to serve in the military, it’s beginning to look like the Russian military poses little to no threat to America.

Me? I’ll take a worthy opponent like the VC any day. If I’m going to fight, give me someone worth getting out of bed to face.

e f

April's Crossword Puzzle

Army Signal CorpsTheme: NSATrivia Army Signal Corps

Hint: Join 2 and 3 word answers together as one complete word.

 For answer key to this month's puzzle,
see icon at bottom of page



[1] On 1 January 1939 the then existing five Signal Service Detachments, including the 10th, were reassigned to the newly activated 2nd Signal Service Company headquartered at Fort Monmouth. To return to your place in the text click here: Return to text



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